The following is a list of words derived from nouns in the ulu- / izin- Noun Class (which I call the Concepts NC). Some of them are Relatives (descriptive things used to draw a relationship between a noun and something else), while others are Adverbs (descriptive things used to enlarge on or modify verbs).

Read through them, use them in daily life to add spice to your description of a NOUN (using the Relative Concord) or to enlarge the meaning of a VERB (use as is), or discard them if you wish.

Personally, these are some of my favourite words – I just like the way the LU sounds when introducing these concepts (especially as it is so absent in the nouns themselves, e.g. with uluthando losing the LU to become uthando).


-lubengu : sharp, cutting

-lubisi : creamy; cream coloured

lubule : in reclining position (adv)

lucezu : edgewise, sideways, with force (adv)

-lucwamba : hlonipha term for luhlaza

-lucwatha : hairless, smooth

-ludizima : hazy, misty

ludongalunye : of one purpose, or of similar intention

lufifi : indistinctly, hazily (adverb)

-lufifi : indistinct, hazy, dim, dull

-lufipha : dark brown, purplish brown; dirty-coloured

-lufipho: dull burnt-brown

lugugube : walking sideways, crabwise

-luhlaza : green, blue (of any shade); clear, crystalline (as pure water); raw, green; uncooked, unripe; uncultured, uneducated, mannerless; glossy, polished, burnished

-luhlwa : poverty-stricken, destitute; naked

lukeke : sideways, awry, askant, askew; in lopsided position; with crablike movement

-lukeke : lopsided, leaning, slanting

-lukhozi : black with white marks on the belly and speckling on the forehead

-lukhuni : hard, stiff, rigid; difficult; hard-hearted

-lukhuntu : morose, surly; discoloured

-lula : light (in weight), flimsy; lacking in personality; easy; agile, light-footed; airy, cool, quiet

-lunkonono : hesitant, unwilling, reluctant, indifferent

-luntwentwe : transparent, translucent

-luphatha : hollow-bottomed, grooved (as some bottles, porridge plates, etc.)

-luphenge : wide-spreading, broad, broad-brimmed

-luphengelezi : wide-spreading

-luphumpu : wild, unrestrained

-luphuya : destitute, impoverished, bereaved

-luquntu : stunted, short, scrubby

-luqwaku : hlonipha term for -lukhuni

-luqwatha : bare, denuded, desert.

-luqwathule : bare, desert, denuded

lusilili : slowly, reluctantly, hesitatingly

-lusilili : slow, reluctant, hesitating

-lusizi : sad, grieved, afflicted, sorrowful, miserable; in trouble, in difficulty

-luswampu : twisted, crooked

-luthezo : hlonipha term for -lukhuni

-luthuqasana : dust-coloured

-luthuqusana : dust-coloured, faded

-luthuqusi : dusty, covered in dust

-luthuthu : smoky, hazy, greyish

-luthuthuva : sandy-coloured; discoloured

-lutshekeza : sloppy, liquid

lutsheku : aslant, in leaning position

-lutsheku : slanting, aslant, inclining, leaning

-luvivi : faint, indistinct; lukewarm

-luzica : tough, tenacious, pliant, supple

-luzizima : hazy

-luzwambuzwambu : tall, thin-bodied, emaciated